ultrain-ts-lib
The Ultrain Smart Contract common using library written in Typescript
Last updated 2 months ago by robin001 .
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Manual for coding contract on Ultrain Blockchain


Startup

Ultrain Blockchain uses a language likes Javascript to write smart contracts, this language bases on Typescript with strong type checking, so you can interpret it as C++ or Java.

Predefined functions

function NAME(str: string): u64 : This funciton is applied to convert a string to account_name. The length of str must be equal-less than 12 and it can only contain characters from .012345abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz, also, str can not end with ., otherwise it will be trimed.

function RNAME(account: account_name): string : This funciton is applied to convert an account_name to string.

function ACTION(str: string): Action : This funciton is applied to convert a string to class Action. Action wraps action related operations. The str only contains characters from ._0-9a-zA-Z, and its length must be less than 22. Refer class Action for more details.

Action.sender : The originator of current transaction, it returns an account_name value.

Action.receiver : The receiver of current transaction, normally, it is the account of your smart contract deployed to.

Block.number : The height of head block.

Block.id : The id of head block, it is a hexadecimal string with sha256 encryted .

Block.timestamp : The timestamp of head block, it returns seconds count since epoch.

Your first Hello world contract

import { NAME, RNAME } from "ultrain-ts-lib/src/account";
import { Log } from "ultrain-ts-lib/src/log";
import { Contract } from "ultrain-ts-lib/src/contract";

class HelloWorld extends Contract {

    @action
    hi(name: account_name, age: u32, msg: string): void {
        Log.s("hi: name = ").s(RNAME(name)).s(" age = ").i(age, 10).s(" msg = ").s(msg).flush();
    }
}

Let's explain this snippet:

  1. import: You can import classes, funcitons or anyother symbols exported from other files. You can refer to typescript for more details.
  2. extends Contract: Each smart contract must extends from base class Contract, and there must be ONE and ONLY ONE class extends from Contract.
  3. @action: To declare an aciton. If a function is labeled with @action, then it can be invoked by sending a transaction to it.
  4. Log: Prints log to console.

Compile and deploy a smart contract

  • To compile a contract, use: robin build

  • To deploy a contract, use: robin deploy

Return message from an transaction

In order to pass messages between blockchain node and centralized server, we import method Return and ReturnArray. The returned message will be appened to the http response. Please notice this fact: Return message is only a pre executed result of one blockchain node, it is not confirmed by the blockchain network. Sometimes the confirmed message would be different with what your get from http response. To return a message, please call Return,ReturnArray methods like this example:

class HelloContract extends Contract {
    @action
    on_hi(name: u64, age: u32, msg: string): void {
        Return<string>("call hi() succeed.");
        ReturnArray<u8>([1,2,3]);
    }
}

After the action pre executed, you will get call hi() succeed.123 as return message.

NOTICE for Return a message

  1. Length of return message is limited, its default length is 128( The integer values will be converted to string). You can change the default value contract-return-string-length = 512 from file config.ini.
  2. Return, ReturnArray only support primitive types, include integer, string, array of integer, array of string.
  3. You can call Return or ReturnArray multi times, the message will be concated.
  4. If the length of return message is longer than contract-return-string-length, the message is discared silently, no exception thrown.

Query and transfer tokens from utrio.token

You can query/transfer the tokens from/to the account utrio.token, which Ultrain Blockchain issues tokens to. To query tokens of an account, call method Asset.balanceOf(who: account_name): Asset; To transfer tokens between accounts, call method Asset.transfer(from: account_name, to: account_name, val: Asset, memo: string): void.

For more details, refer to demo balance

import { Contract } from "ultrain-ts-lib/src/contract";
import { Asset } from "ultrain-ts-lib/src/asset";
import { ultrain_assert } from "ultrain-ts-lib/src/utils";

class BalanceContract extends Contract {

    @action
    transfer(from: account_name, to: account_name, bet: Asset): void {

        let balance = Asset.balanceOf(from);
        ultrain_assert(balance.gte(bet), "your balance is not enough.");

        balance.prints("banalce from: ");

        Asset.transfer(from, to, bet, "this is a transfer test");
    }
}

NOTICE You must delegate your active permission to account utrio.code, if you want to transfer your tokens to some account from another contract.

Monitor Events

  • emit event from an action
class HelloWorld extends Contract{

    @action
    hi(name: account_name, age: u32, msg: string): void {
        Log.s("hi: name = ").s(RNAME(name)).s(" age = ").i(age, 10).s(" msg = ").s(msg).flush();
        emit("onHiInvoked", EventObject.setString("name", RNAME(name)));
    }

emit: It will emit event "onHiInvoked", and the messages set to EventObject will be composed to a JSON object. The length of JSON object is limited to 128, you can config contract-emit-string-length in config.ini to change the default value. If the length of JSON object is longer than contract-emit-string-length, this event would be discared without any exception.

  • Subscribe/Unsubscribe events from blockchian node Clients should subscribe envents from blockchain node, when a contract emits an event, the node will post EventObject message to specific url.

(In below snippets, the host and port of http url should be replaced with concrete values.)

Subscribe You can post your request via this RPC http://localhost:8888/v1/chain/register_event to subscribe all events of account. The data struct of your request:

{
"account": "account_which_contract_deployed_to",
"post_url": "http://yourserver:yourport"
}

If you subscribe events by curl, here is an example:

curl -X POST -d '{"account":"contract.he","post_url":"http://127.0.0.1:3000"}' "http://localhost:8888/v1/chain/register_event"

Unsubscribe You can post this request to unsubscribe by http://localhost:8888/v1/chain/unregister_event

for curl example:

curl -X POST -d '{"account":"contract.he","post_url":"http://127.0.0.1:3000"}' "http://localhost:8888/v1/chain/unregister_event"

Struct of Event Message When some events emit, the blockchain node will post message to post_url, the message contains event name and a JSON style string.

Start a http server to receive posted event message

Now start a http server to listen incoming message: IMPORTANT: the server instance should support keep-alive settings.

http = require('http');
fs = require('fs');
server = http.createServer( function(req, res) {

    console.dir(req.param);

    if (req.method == 'POST') {
        console.log("POST");
        var body = '';
        req.on('data', function (data) {
            body += data;
            console.log("Partial body: " + body);
        });
        req.on('end', function () {
            console.log("Body: " + body);
        });
        res.writeHead(200, {'Content-Type': 'text/html'});
        res.end('post received');
    }
    else
    {
        console.log("GET");

        var html = fs.readFileSync('index.html');
        res.writeHead(200, {'Content-Type': 'text/html'});
        res.end(html);
    }

});

port = 3000;
host = '127.0.0.1';
server.timeout = 0;
serfer.keepAliveTimeout = 0;
server.listen(port, host);
console.log('Listening at http://' + host + ':' + port);

Persistent Storage

It is different with Ethereum, Ultrain blockchain should not store data automatically, you can decide what dataes should be stored to or loaded from database. You can do this by next steps:

Interface Serializable

Serializable is an interface which defines methods to serialize and deserialize dataes, that supports persistent storage. It defines thress methods:

export interface Serializable {
    deserialize(ds: DataStream): void;
    serialize(ds : DataStream) : void;
    primaryKey(): u64;
}
  • deserialize(ds: DataStream): void; To deserialize an object from a datastrem.
  • serialize(ds: DataStream): void; To serialize an object to a datastream.
  • primaryKey(): u64; To generate a primary key for this object. If this object will be stored to database as an independent item, the return value will be the primary key in database. Otherwise, the return value is useless.

NOTICE

  1. The compiler would implements these methods automatically and serialize/deserialize all of its member varialbes if a class implements interface Serializeable. If you want to override one or all of three methods, the compiler would choose your implementation and should not generate theme by itself.
  2. If some member variables should be prevent from being serialized and deserialized, label them with @ignore.;
  3. If a member variable is primary key, label it with @primaryid. Be attentation the @primaryid member variable must be type of u64. If none member varialbe is labeled with @primaryid, funciton primaryKey() return 0 as default.
  4. If label member variables with @ignore or/and @primaryid, and override function one or all of serialize(), deserialzie() or primaryKey(), the compiler should use overrided functions priority.

Here is an example to describe how to use interface Serializalbe:

class Person implements Serializable {
    name: string;
    age: u32;
    sex: string;
    salary: u32;
    @ignore
    address: string; // be ignored

    constructor() {
        this.name = "xx";
        //...
    }
    // override function primaryKey(), return id of class Person.
    primaryKey(): u64 {
        return NAME(this.name);
    }
}

Serializable data types

If you want to store data to database, the data must support serialize and deserialize. There are some data types can do this:

  1. Primitive data types: u8/i8, u16/i16, u32/i32, u64/i64, boolean, string. Some data type like account_name is an alias of primitive type of u64.
  2. Array of primitive data types: u8[], i8[], ..., string[]
  3. Classes which implements interface Serializable, like Person.
  4. Array of classes which implements interface Serializable, like Person[].

Declare table information for DB

If a contract use DB to persistent data, you must declare table information at your Contract.

Here is a snippet:

class Person implements Serializable {
   name: string;
   sex: string;
}

class Car implements Serializable {
   model: string;
   power: u32;
   color: string;
}

@database(Person, "persons")
@database(Car, "cars")
// @database() if any more
clas MyContract extends Contract {
    //...
    // your logic here
}

The compiler will generate two tables in abi file for "persons" and "cars". Be attentation, the classes labeled with @database must implements interface Serializable.

Read and Write Database

Ultrain smart contract uses class DBManager to manipulate reading and write database.

Definition of DBManager:

 export class DBManager<T extends Serializable> {
    constructor(tblname: u64, owner: u64, scope: u64) {}
    public cursor(): Cursor<T> {}
    public emplace(payer: u64, obj: T): void {}
    public modify(payer: u64, newobj: T): void {}
    public exists(primary: u64): boolean {}
    public get(primary: u64, out: T): boolean { }
    public erase(obj: T): void {}
}
  • constructor() has three parameters, tblname: u64 means table name. owner:u64 is always the account which this contract deployed to. scope: u64 is a context.
  • cursor() retrieve table rows.
  • emplace() insert an item to database. payer will pay for the storage,obj is an serializable object.
  • modify() update an item.
  • exists() judges if an primary key exists in DB or not.
  • get() read an item from DB and deserialize it to out object.
  • erase() to eliminate an item from DB whose primary key matched.

NOTICE You can not drop a table manually, if all of its items eliminated, the table is dropped.

Use cursor to iterate table rows

We provide a method cursor() to retrieve all of the table rows. But you must bear in mind that it is a very very low performance operation. It loads all the rows to memory while you invoke cursor(), so if there are too many records, your action will be stucked for a while, and it will fail your action. Here is a snippet to show how to use cursor:

let cursor = this.db.cursor();
Log.s("cursor.count =").i(cursor.count).flush();
cursor.first();
while(cursor.hasNext()) {
    let p: Person = cursor.get();
    p.prints();
    cursor.next();
}

Relationship between scope and primary key in a table

You can classify your data both with scope or primary key in a table, but they are in different dimensions, we should interpret them as below struct:


 |--table
 |----scope1
 |--------primaryKey_1
 |--------primaryKey_2
 |--------........
 |----scope2
 |--------primaryKey_x
 |--------primaryKey_y
 |--------.......

With different scope, items can have the same primary keys.

A demo of DBManager

Here is a demo for manipulate DBManager, refer to Person for details.

import "allocator/arena";
import { Contract } from "ultrain-ts-lib/src/contract";
import { Log } from "ultrain-ts-lib/src/log";
import { ultrain_assert } from "ultrain-ts-lib/src/utils";
import { DBManager } from "ultrain-ts-lib/src/dbmanager";
import { NAME } from "ultrain-ts-lib/src/account";

class Person implements Serializable {
    // name: string;
    name: string
    age: u32;
    salary: u32;

    primaryKey(): u64 { return NAME(this.name); }

    prints(): void {
        Log.s("name = ").s(this.name).s(", age = ").i(this.age).s(", salary = ").i(this.salary).flush();
    }
}

const tblname = "humans";
const scope = "dept.sales";

@database(Person, "humans")
// @database(SomeMoreRecordStruct, "other_table")
class PersonContract extends Contract {

    db: DBManager<Person>;

    public onInit(): void {
        this.db = new DBManager<Person>(NAME(tblname), this.receiver, NAME(scope));
    }


    public onStop(): void {

    }

    constructor(code: u64) {
        super(code);
        this._receiver = code;

        this.onInit();
    }

    @action
    add(name: string, age: u32, salary: u32): void {
        let p = new Person();
        p.name = name;
        p.age = age;
        p.salary = salary;

        let existing = this.db.exists(NAME(name));
        ultrain_assert(!existing, "this person has existed in db yet.");
        p.prints();
        this.db.emplace(this.receiver, p);
    }

    @action
    modify(name: string, salary: u32): void {
        let p = new Person();
        let existing = this.db.get(NAME(name), p);
        ultrain_assert(existing, "the person does not exist.");

        p.salary = salary;

        this.db.modify(this.receiver, p);
    }

    @action
    remove(name: string): void {
        Log.s("start to remove: ").s(name).flush();
        this.db.erase(NAME(name));
    }
}

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