@neutrinojs/library
Neutrino preset for building distributable libraries
Last updated 3 days ago by edmorley .
MPL-2.0 · Repository · Bugs · Original npm · Tarball · package.json
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Neutrino Library Preset

@neutrinojs/library is a Neutrino preset that supports creating JS libraries for Web or Node.js targets.

NPM version NPM downloads

Features

  • Zero upfront configuration necessary to start developing and building a JavaScript library
  • Modern Babel compilation supporting ES modules, async functions, and dynamic imports
  • Compiles to ES5 to support major browsers, publishing to npm, and library interoperability
  • Defaults to UMD-based output for consumption in a variety of environments
  • Supports automatically-wired sourcemaps
  • Tree-shaking to create smaller bundles
  • Automatically marks dependencies as external
  • Easily extensible to customize your library as needed

Important! If you need polyfills in your code, consider including core-js in your package.json. This is will configure @babel/present-env to automatically include polyfills based on usage. More details here.

Requirements

  • Node.js 10+
  • Yarn v1.2.1+, or npm v5.4+
  • Neutrino 9
  • webpack 4
  • webpack-cli 3

Quickstart

The fastest way to get started is by using the create-project scaffolding tool. Don’t want to use the CLI helper? No worries, we have you covered with the manual installation.

create-project

Run the following command to start the process. Substitute <directory-name> with the directory name you wish to create for this project.

Yarn

❯ yarn create @neutrinojs/project <directory-name>

Note: The create command is a shorthand that helps you do two things at once. See the Yarn create docs for more details.

npm/npx

npx comes pre-installed with npm. If you’re running an older version of npm, then npm install -g npm to update to the latest version.

❯ npx @neutrinojs/create-project <directory-name>

The CLI helper will prompt for the project to scaffold, and will offer to set up a test runner as well as linting to your project. Refer to the Create new project section for details on all available options.

Manual Installation

@neutrinojs/library can be installed via the Yarn or npm clients. Inside your project, make sure that the dependencies below are installed as development dependencies.

Yarn

❯ yarn add --dev neutrino @neutrinojs/library webpack webpack-cli

npm

❯ npm install --save-dev neutrino @neutrinojs/library webpack webpack-cli

If you want to have automatically wired sourcemaps added to your project, add source-map-support:

Yarn

❯ yarn add source-map-support

npm

❯ npm install --save source-map-support

After that, add a new directory named src in the root of the project, with a single JS file named index.js in it.

❯ mkdir src && touch src/index.js

Edit your src/index.js file with the following:

// Create a simple logger library that only logs when
// debug mode is enabled, and logs to the appropriate level
export default class Logger {
  constructor(level, debug = true) {
    this.level = level;
    this.debug = debug;
  }

  log(...args) {
    if (this.debug) {
      console[level](...args);
    }
  }
}

Now edit your project's package.json to add commands for building the library:

{
  "name": "super-logger",
  "scripts": {
    "build": "webpack --mode production"
  }
}

Then create a .neutrinorc.js file alongside package.json, which contains your Neutrino configuration:

const library = require('@neutrinojs/library');

module.exports = {
  use: [
    library({
      name: 'Logger',
    }),
  ],
};

And create a webpack.config.js file, that uses the Neutrino API to access the generated webpack config:

const neutrino = require('neutrino');

module.exports = neutrino().webpack();

You can now build your library!

Yarn

❯ yarn build

npm

❯ npm start

Project Layout

@neutrinojs/library follows the standard project layout specified by Neutrino. This means that by default all library source code should live in a directory named src in the root of the project. This includes JavaScript files that would be available to your compiled project.

Building

@neutrinojs/library builds assets to the build directory by default when running yarn build. You should specify a main property in your package.json pointing to your primary built main entry point. Also when publishing your project to npm, consider excluding your src directory by using the files property to whitelist build, or via .npmignore to blacklist src.

{
  "name": "super-logger",
  "main": "build/index.js",
  "files": ["build"]
}

Your built library can now be consumed with ES imports, CJS require, AMD require, or even script tags:

// ES imports
import Logger from 'super-logger';

// CJS require
const Logger = require('super-logger');

// AMD require
require(['super-logger'], Logger => {
  // ...
});
<!-- script tags -->
<script src="/path/to/super-logger"></script>

<!--
  once published to npm, you can even use a script tag
  to point to unpkg
-->
<script src="https://unpkg.com/super-logger"></script>

Preset options

You can provide custom options and have them merged with this preset's default options to easily affect how this preset builds. You can modify Library preset settings from .neutrinorc.js by overriding with an options object. The following shows how you can pass an options object to the Library preset and override its options, showing the defaults where applicable:

const library = require('@neutrinojs/library');

module.exports = {
  use: [
    library({
      // REQUIRED. Sets the name of the library, along with its
      // output filename.
      name: '<YOUR_LIBRARY_NAME>',

      // Compile the library for use in a specific environment.
      // Defaults to 'web', but can be switched to 'node' as well
      target: 'web',

      // Configure how the library will be exposed. Keeping this set
      // to 'umd' ensures compatibility with a large number of module
      // systems, but you can override if you want to produce a smaller
      // bundle targeted to specific module systems like 'commonjs2' (CJS).
      libraryTarget: 'umd',

      // Override options passed to webpack-node-externals,
      // such as whitelisting dependencies for bundling.
      externals: {},

      // Disable cleaning the output build directory
      clean: false,

      // Target specific browsers or Node.js versions with @babel/preset-env
      targets: {},

      // Add additional Babel plugins, presets, or env options
      babel: {
        // Override options for @babel/preset-env
        presets: [
          [
            '@babel/preset-env',
            {
              debug: neutrino.options.debug,
              useBuiltIns: 'usage',
            },
          ],
        ],
      },
    }),
  ],
};

Example: Override the library to output a commonjs2 module:

const library = require('@neutrinojs/library');

module.exports = {
  use: [
    library({
      name: 'Logger',
      target: 'node',
      libraryTarget: 'commonjs2',
    }),
  ],
};

Targets

Using the targets option, you can target specific browsers or Node.js versions to compile to with @babel/preset-env. By default, this preset does not set any targets and will compile to an ES5 baseline.

Example: Override the library Babel compilation target to Node.js v6:

const library = require('@neutrinojs/library');

module.exports = {
  use: [
    library({
      name: 'Logger',
      target: 'node',
      targets: {
        node: '6.0',
      },
    }),
  ],
};

Setting to false will override Neutrino's default targets and allow @babel/preset-env to read targets from a .browserslistrc file.

const library = require('@neutrinojs/library');

module.exports = {
  use: [
    library({
      name: 'Logger',
      target: 'node',
      targets: false,
    }),
  ],
};

When using a .browserslistrc file, be aware that file changes may not invalidate cache as expected: https://github.com/babel/babel-loader/issues/690

See @babel/preset-env for all other available settings.

Customizing

To override the build configuration, start with the documentation on customization. @neutrinojs/library creates some conventions to make overriding the configuration easier once you are ready to make changes.

By default Neutrino, and therefore this preset, creates a single main index entry point to your library, and this maps to the index.* file in the src directory. This means that this preset is optimized toward a single main entry to your library. Code not imported in the hierarchy of the index entry will not be output to the bundle. To overcome this you must either define more mains via options.mains, import the code path somewhere along the index hierarchy, or define multiple configurations in your .neutrinorc.js.

If the need arises, you can also compile node_modules by referring to the relevant compile-loader documentation.

External dependencies

This preset automatically marks all dependencies as external to your library, meaning that any dependencies you import will not be bundled with your library. This helps prevent your library from bloating, but means users of your library will be installing or using your dependencies as defined in package.json. You can override this in the library preset options by passing further options to the externals property. This accepts an options object format defined by webpack-node-externals, to which you can provide a whitelist value.

The whitelist will override which dependencies are bundled in your library. Any dependency not matched by this whitelist is considered a peer of your library, and will not be bundled.

Example: The following example library redux-example has the following package.json, marking redux and mitt as dependencies, but only lists mitt in whitelist. This bundles mitt along with the library, so the library consumer does not need to explicitly import/require/script it prior. The redux dependency is not in the whitelist, so it will not be bundled, and is considered a peer of redux-example.

{
  "name": "redux-example",
  "version": "1.0.0",
  "main": "build/reduxExample.js",
  "scripts": {
    "build": "webpack --mode production"
  },
  "dependencies": {
    "mitt": "*",
    "redux": "*"
  },
  "devDependencies": {
    "neutrino": "*",
    "@neutrinojs/library": "*"
  }
}
const library = require('@neutrinojs/library');

module.exports = {
  use: [
    library({
      name: 'reduxExample',
      externals: {
        whitelist: ['mitt'],
      },
    }),
  ],
};
// ES imports
import { createStore } from 'redux';
import reduxExample from 'redux-example';

// CJS require
const { createStore } = require('redux');
const reduxExample = require('redux-example');

// AMD require
require(['redux', 'redux-example'], ({ createStore }, reduxExample) => {
  // ...
});
<!-- script tags -->
<script src="/path/to/redux"></script>
<script src="/path/to/redux-example"></script>
<script>
  const { createStore } = window.redux;
  window.reduxExample; // ...
</script>

<!--
  once published to npm, you can even use a script tag
  to point to unpkg
-->
<script src="https://unpkg.com/redux"></script>
<script src="https://unpkg.com/redux-example"></script>
<script>
  const { createStore } = window.redux;
  window.reduxExample; // ...
</script>

Source minification

By default script sources are minified in production only, using webpack's default of terser-webpack-plugin. To customise the options passed to TerserPlugin or even use a different minifier, override optimization.minimizer.

Example: Adjust the terser minification settings:

const library = require('@neutrinojs/library');

module.exports = {
  use: [
    library({ name: 'reduxExample' }),
    neutrino => {
      // Whilst the minimizer is only used when the separate `minimize` option is true
      // (ie in production), the conditional avoids the expensive require() in development.
      if (process.env.NODE_ENV === 'production') {
        neutrino.config.optimization
          .minimizer('terser')
          .use(require.resolve('terser-webpack-plugin'), [
            {
              // Default options used by webpack:
              // https://github.com/webpack/webpack/blob/v4.26.0/lib/WebpackOptionsDefaulter.js#L308-L315
              cache: true,
              parallel: true,
              sourceMap:
                neutrino.config.devtool &&
                /source-?map/.test(neutrino.config.devtool),
              // Pass custom options here.
              // https://github.com/webpack-contrib/terser-webpack-plugin#terseroptions
              // https://github.com/terser-js/terser#minify-options
              terserOptions: {
                // eg disable mangling of names
                mangle: false,
              },
            },
          ]);
      }
    },
  ],
};

Generating multiple builds

A library can be built multiple times from a webpack.config.js file in order to generate multiple library outputs when building. This is done by exporting an array of Neutrino outputs rather than a single output.

// .neutrinorc.js
const library = require('@neutrinojs/library');

module.exports = {
  use: [
    library({
      name: 'Logger',
      clean: false,
    }),
  ],
};
// webpack.config.js
const neutrino = require('neutrino');

const config = neutrino().webpack();

module.exports = [config, { ...config, libraryTarget: 'commonjs2' }];

Rules

The following is a list of rules and their identifiers which can be overridden:

Name Description NODE_ENV
compile Compiles JS files from the src directory using Babel. Contains a single loader named babel all

Plugins

The following is a list of plugins and their identifiers which can be overridden:

Note: Some plugins are only available in certain environments. To override them, they should be modified conditionally.

Name Description NODE_ENV
banner Injects source-map-support into the main entry points of your application if detected in dependencies or devDependencies of your package.json. Only when source-map-support is installed
clean Clean or remove the build directory prior to building. From @neutrinojs/clean. 'production'

Override configuration

By following the customization guide and knowing the rule, loader, and plugin IDs above, you can override and augment the build by by providing a function to your .neutrinorc.js use array. You can also make these changes from the Neutrino API in custom middleware.

Example: Allow importing modules with a .esm extension.

const library = require('@neutrinojs/library');

module.exports = {
  use: [
    library({
      /* ... */
    }),
    neutrino => {
      neutrino.config.resolve.extensions.add('.esm');
    },
  ],
};

Contributing

This preset is part of the neutrino repository, a monorepo containing all resources for developing Neutrino and its core presets and middleware. Follow the contributing guide for details.

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